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Study Links Early Infections to Celiac Risk
Study Links Early Infections to Celiac Risk FRIDAY, Oct. 2, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Children who have a lot of infections in the first 18 months of life may have an increased risk for celiac disease, a new study from Norway suggests. The study found that children with 10 or more respiratory and gastrointestinal infections during the first 18 months of life were 30 percent more likely to develop celiac disease than kids who had fewer than five infections. The researchers also found that youngsters with ...
Study Says Radiation Often Overused in Late-Stage Lung Cancer
Study Says Radiation Often Overused in Late-Stage Lung Cancer FRIDAY, Oct. 2, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Late-stage lung cancer patients in the United States often receive more radiation therapy than recommended, a new study finds. While radiation therapy can reduce pain and improve quality of life, unnecessary treatments increase costs and hospital visits, and can lead to radiation toxicity and difficulty swallowing, the researchers noted. "This study uncovered that there's a lot of treatment of late-sta...
Science Probes Why Beauty Is In Eye of the Beholder
Science Probes Why Beauty Is In Eye of the Beholder THURSDAY, Oct. 1, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Think Brad Pitt is as handsome as George Clooney? Why or why not? A new study suggests your choice will be largely influenced by your personal experience. Some aspects of attractiveness are common and may even be programmed into your genes, according to the researchers. For example, most everyone prefers symmetrical faces. But beyond a few shared preferences, people have wide-ranging definitions of attractiven...
Sender Often Focus of Mobile Tweets, Study Says
Sender Often Focus of Mobile Tweets, Study Says THURSDAY, Oct. 1, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- People are more likely to be focused on themselves when they tweet from mobile devices than from other sources, a new study suggests. Researchers gathered 235 million tweets sent over six weeks and analyzed the frequency and ratio of words typically associated with certain social and behavioral characteristics. The results showed that mobile tweets were more egocentric than those made from non-mobile devices. The ...
Secondhand Smoke Linked to Behavior Issues in Kids
Secondhand Smoke Linked to Behavior Issues in Kids THURSDAY, Oct. 1, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Early exposure to secondhand smoke may lead to behavioral problems in children, a new study suggests. Researchers analyzed data from more than 5,200 primary school students in France and found that those exposed to secondhand smoke while in the womb and/or at a young age were at higher risk for behavioral problems, particularly emotional and conduct disorders. The association was strongest among children expose...
Severely Obese Kids at Higher Risk for Heart Disease, Diabetes
Severely Obese Kids at Higher Risk for Heart Disease, Diabetes WEDNESDAY, Sept. 30, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Children who are severely obese, especially boys, have risk factors that increase their odds of getting heart disease and diabetes, new research finds. "As the severity of obesity in kids gets worse, their risks for heart disease and diabetes goes up," said study author Asheley Skinner, an associate professor of pediatrics and health policy management at the University of North Carolina at Chapel...
Surgery Patients Like Online Follow-up, Study Finds
Surgery Patients Like Online Follow-up, Study Finds TUESDAY, Sept. 29, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Online postoperative care is preferred over in-person care by a majority of patients who have routine, uncomplicated surgery, a new study finds. The study included 50 patients who had both online and in-person care visits after elective gallbladder removal or hernia repair. Seventy-six percent said online care was acceptable as the only form of followup. For 68 percent of the patients, online and in-person vi...
Some More Vulnerable to Nicotine Addiction Than Others: Study
Some More Vulnerable to Nicotine Addiction Than Others: Study TUESDAY, Sept. 29, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Some people are more likely than others to get hooked quickly on cigarettes, new research suggests. The finding is based on what researchers say is the first effort ever to analyze exactly how people react the first time they come into contact with a small amount of nicotine. "When you give people nicotine for the first time, most people don't like it. It's different from many other addictive drugs,...
Smog Linked to Organ Rejection, Deaths in Lung Transplant Patients
Smog Linked to Organ Rejection, Deaths in Lung Transplant Patients TUESDAY, Sept. 29, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Living near busy roads with high levels of air pollution raises lung transplant patients' risk of organ rejection and death, but some antibiotics lower that risk, a new study shows. Researchers examined data gathered from more than 5,700 lung transplant patients in 10 European countries between 1987 and 2013. The analysis revealed that patients who lived in areas where air pollution was above m...
Sedentary Behavior Linked to Heart Disease in Hispanics
Sedentary Behavior Linked to Heart Disease in Hispanics MONDAY, Sept. 28, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Hispanics who are inactive much of the time are at increased risk for heart disease and diabetes, even if they get regular exercise, a new study suggests. Researchers analyzed data from more than 12,000 Hispanic adults in Chicago, Miami, New York City and San Diego. Compared to those who were most physically active, adults who were most inactive had: 6 percent lower levels of "good" HDL cholesterol; 16 per...
Sweetened Drinks May Damage Heart, Review Finds
Sweetened Drinks May Damage Heart, Review Finds MONDAY, Sept. 28, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Soft drinks and other sugar-sweetened beverages can seriously damage heart health, a new review finds. The added sugar in sodas, fruit drinks, sweet teas and energy drinks affects the body in ways that increase risk of heart attack, heart disease and stroke, said review author Vasanti Malik, a nutrition research scientist at Harvard's T.H. Chan School of Public Health in Boston. Consuming one or two servings a day...
Sleep Apnea May Raise Risk of Depression
Sleep Apnea May Raise Risk of Depression FRIDAY, Sept. 25, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- People with sleep apnea are at increased risk for depression, but continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for their apnea may ease their depression, a new study suggests. The Australian study included 293 men and women who were newly diagnosed with sleep apnea. Nearly 73 percent had depression when the study began. The worse their apnea, the more severe their depression. However, after three months, only 4 per...
Scrotal Swelling in Children
Scrotal Swelling in Children Your son's scrotum is the sac that holds the two testicles. Scrotal swelling is a common problem seen in young boys and baby boys. It can have many causes. These are usually divided into painless and painful scrotal swelling. Hydrocele. Click to Enlarge. Causes of painless scrotal swelling Painless swelling can come on suddenly or slowly over time. Here are some of the more common causes: Hernias and hydroceles. These are the most common causes of scrotal swelling. They are ...
Stress Fractures in Young Athletes
Stress Fractures in Young Athletes Competitive sports can give some young athletes an edge over their peers. When fun, teamwork, and good sportsmanship are the top goals, sports can improve young kids' physical and emotional health, self-esteem, and even their relationship skills. Unfortunately, young athletes must also compensate for still-growing bones, tendons, and muscles, and sometimes sports injuries occur. The most common type of sports injury is an overuse injury such as a stress fracture. Overu...
Sports and Children with Special Needs
Sports and Children with Special Needs All children can benefit from the exercise, energy release, and pure enjoyment of playing sports, and this includes children with special needs. About 18% of children in the U.S. have a disability or chronic condition. Special needs children are sometimes not encouraged to exercise because their parents or guardians fear they'll be hurt. But physical activity is as important for special needs children, as it is for any child. Participating in sports can help instil...
Sympathetic Nerve Blocks for Pain
Sympathetic Nerve Blocks for Pain A sympathetic nerve block is believed by many pain health care providers to be an effective method for controlling chronic pain. However, there is not a great deal of medical evidence to show whether these blocks are actually helpful. This therapy targets the sympathetic nervous system, a series of nerves that spread out from your spine to your body to help control several involuntary body functions, or body functions that you have no control over. These include blood f...
Stroke in Children
Stroke in Children A stroke is a brain injury caused by the interruption of blood flow to part of the brain. Stroke can be caused by a blocked blood vessel (ischemic stroke) or by bleeding in the brain (hemorrhagic stroke). The brain needs a constant supply of oxygen, which is carried by the blood. When blood flow stops, brain cells start to die. Stroke is much more common in adults than children. Because a stroke isn't expected in a child, the diagnosis may be delayed. A child, however, often recovers ...
Stages of Alzheimer’s Disease
Stages of Alzheimer’s Disease Alzheimer’s disease is a brain disorder that causes memory loss, confusion, and changes in personality. It is a type of dementia. At first, people with this disease have only a small amount of memory loss and confusion. This is called “cognitive decline.” Over time, however, these symptoms get more severe. According to the Alzheimer's Association, the disease progresses through about seven stages of symptoms. In the final stage, people with Alzheimer’s disease may be unable...
Sleep Deprivation Sleep deprivation is not a specific disease. It is usually the result of other illnesses and life circumstances that can cause its own symptoms and poor health outcomes. Sleep deprivation means you’re not getting enough sleep. For most adults, the amount of sleep needed for best health is seven to eight hours each night. When you get less sleep than that, as many people do, it can eventually lead to a whole host of health problems. These can include forgetfulness, inattentiveness, bein...
Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction
Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction Bile is a digestive juice that your liver produces. Your gallbladder stores it. Then it flows into the upper part of your small intestine to help you digest food. At the same time, your pancreas makes juices that are important for digestion. Both bile and your pancreatic juices flow to your small intestine through a common duct that is opened and closed by a round valve. The valve is a muscle called the sphincter of Oddi. In rare cases, the sphincter of Oddi goes into spasm...
Smoking and the Digestive System
Smoking and the Digestive System Smoking can harm your digestive system in a number of ways. Smokers tend to get heartburn and peptic ulcers more often than nonsmokers. Smoking makes those conditions harder to treat. Smoking increases the risk for Crohn’s disease and gallstones, and it increases the risk of further damage in liver disease. Smoking is also associated with cancer of the digestive organs, including the stomach, pancreas, and colon. Smoking and heartburn The stomach makes acidic juices that...
Sunitinib Malate Oral capsule
Sunitinib Malate Oral capsule What is this medicine? SUNITINIB (soo NI ti nib) is a chemotherapy drug. It targets a specific protein within cancer cells and stops the cancer cells from growing. It is used to treat specific digestive tract tumors called GISTs, advanced kidney cancer, and certain pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. How should I use this medicine? Take this medicine by mouth with a glass of water. Follow the directions on the prescription label. You can take it with or without food. Take you...
Sodium Oxybate (Gamma Hydroxybutyrate Or GHB) Oral solution
Sodium Oxybate (Gamma Hydroxybutyrate Or GHB) Oral solution What is this medicine? SODIUM OXYBATE (SOE dee um OX i bate) is used to treat excessive sleepiness and cataplexy in patients with narcolepsy. Cataplexy causes a sudden muscle weakness due to a strong emotional response. This medicine is not available in retail pharmacies. Your doctor will enroll you in a program that will provide the drug to you. How should I use this medicine? Take this medicine by mouth. Follow the directions on the prescript...
Sertraline Hydrochloride Oral solution
Sertraline Hydrochloride Oral solution What is this medicine? SERTRALINE (SER tra leen) is used to treat depression. It may also be used to treat obsessive compulsive disorder, panic disorder, post-trauma stress, premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) or social anxiety. How should I use this medicine? Take this medicine by mouth. Follow the directions on the prescription label. Before taking your dose, you need to dilute the solution in a beverage. Measure your medicine dose using the dropper in the bot...
Sertraline Hydrochloride Oral tablet
Sertraline Hydrochloride Oral tablet What is this medicine? SERTRALINE (SER tra leen) is used to treat depression. It may also be used to treat obsessive compulsive disorder, panic disorder, post-trauma stress, premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) or social anxiety. How should I use this medicine? Take this medicine by mouth with a glass of water. Follow the directions on the prescription label. You can take it with or without food. Take your medicine at regular intervals. Do not take your medicine mo...
Stroke A stroke occurs when either too much blood or too little blood disrupts blood flow to part of the brain. Stroke is a medical emergency - prompt medical treatment could mean the difference between life and death. here you will learn about the types of stroke, signs and symptoms of a stroke, and stroke prevention.
Sleep Study (Polysomnogram) Procedure overview What is a sleep study? Sleep is a state of relative unconsciousness and stillness of the voluntary muscles (muscles that are controlled at will). The stages of sleep range from light to deep and each 1 has specific characteristics that can be measured. A sleep study consists of a number of medical tests performed at the same time during sleep. The tests measure specific sleep characteristics and help to diagnose sleep disorders. A sleep study may also be re...
Sigmoidoscopy (Flexible Sigmoidoscopy, Proctosigmoidoscopy, Proctoscopy, Anoscopy) Procedure overview What is a sigmoidoscopy? A sigmoidoscopy is a diagnostic procedure that allows the doctor to examine the lower one-third of the large intestine. Sigmoidoscopy is helpful in identifying the causes of diarrhea, abdominal pain, constipation, abnormal growths, and bleeding. It may also be used to obtain biopsies and to perform procedures, such as removal of polyps or hemorrhoids. Sigmoidoscopy is also used ...
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) What is SARS? Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a rapidly spreading, potentially fatal infectious viral disease. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), SARS was recognized as a global threat in March 2003. The viral disease first appeared in Southern China in November, 2002 and spread to more than 24 countries in Asia, Europe, North America, and South America. There have not been any new cases of SARS since 2004, and the risk...
Sodium and Fluid Restriction for Children
Sodium and Fluid Restriction for Children Sodium restriction for children with renal failure A low-sodium diet or salt restriction may be used to help prevent or reduce fluid retention in your child's body. The amount of sodium or salt allowed in your child's diet depends on your child's medical condition. Your child's doctor or dietitian will determine the amount of sodium allowed in your child's diet. This is usually expressed in milligrams (mg) per day. Some common sodium restrictions include 2,000, ...
Palliative Care What is palliative care? Palliative care is care that makes patients as comfortable as possible and that prevents and relieves suffering. And, although it is part of end-of-life care, it can be applied to care for people in any stage of disease. Palliative care allows for medical therapies, but focuses on: Improving quality of life Reaching the best possible function (for example, daily activities, physical activity, self care) Helping with decision-making about end-of-life care Providin...
Surgical Overview When preparing your child for surgery, there is a great deal to consider prior to the procedure. Listed in the directory below is some additional information regarding preparing your child, for which we have provided a brief overview. Types of Surgery Methods of Surgery The Hospital Setting
Surgery and the Breastfeeding Infant
Surgery and the Breastfeeding Infant Will my baby be able to continue breastfeeding after surgery? When a baby is having surgery, it can be a scary experience for the parents and the baby. But the closeness and security of breastfeeding can be very calming and comforting. Surgery may interrupt breastfeeding for a period of time. You will have to stop breastfeeding at some point before your baby's surgery. Make sure you know when you can give your last feeding. . Managing breastfeeding after surgery In m...
Sports Safety for Children
Sports Safety for Children Sports are great for children. Sports can help a child's physical coordination, fitness, and self-esteem. Sports can also teach children about teamwork and self-discipline. But children are more likely get injured when playing a sport. This is because their body is still growing and their coordination is still developing. Most childhood sports injuries occur when: Kids don’t know what to do to stay safe when playing a sport Kids don’t have the right equipment to play a sport –...
Signs of Respiratory Distress in Children
Signs of Respiratory Distress in Children Learning the signs of respiratory distress Children having difficulty breathing often show signs that they are having to work hard to breathe or are not getting enough oxygen, indicating respiratory distress. Below is a list of some of the signs that may indicate that your child is not getting enough oxygen. It is important to learn the signs of respiratory distress to know how to respond appropriately: Breathing rate. An increase in the number of breaths per mi...
Symptoms of Cystic Fibrosis
Symptoms of Cystic Fibrosis What are the symptoms of cystic fibrosis? Many children today are diagnosed with cystic fibrosis (CF) before they have any symptoms. This is because of an increase in newborn screening programs. Before screening programs existed, most children with CF were diagnosed after one of the following: Respiratory symptoms such as cough, wheezing, or breathing difficulty Meconium ileus (a thick and sticky first bowel movement of a baby that can block the small intestine) Failure to th...
Sore Nipples Sore nipples are common with breastfeeding. Finding the cause of sore nipples can be difficult. Talk with your health care provider or lactation consultant for an evaluation and suggestions on how to resolve the problem. Breastfeeding should not hurt, and the skin on your nipple should not break down any more than the skin anywhere on your body should break down. However, mild tenderness is fairly common for the first week or two of breastfeeding. Then it should go away. If your nipples fee...
Slow or Poor Infant Weight Gain
Slow or Poor Infant Weight Gain Determining slow or poor infant weight gain Weight gain is one of many signs of good health in the breastfeeding baby. Sometimes, a perfectly healthy baby simply gains weight slowly because it's just his or her own unique growth pattern. In other situations, there's a problem that may or may not be easy to identify. If your baby isn't gaining weight according to certain patterns, you and your baby should be checked by your health care provider and a certified lactation co...
Splinters What is a splinter? A splinter is a sharp sliver of wood, glass, or other debris that is lodged underneath the skin. Removal of small, superficial splinters can usually be done at home. First-aid for splinters Calm you child and let him or her know that you can help. Wash your hands. Clean the area around the splinter with soap and water. Use a sterilized needle or tweezers. If part of the splinter is sticking out of the skin, gently try to pull the splinter out using the sterilized tweezers. ...
Spider Bites in Children
Spider Bites in Children Facts about spider bites All of the 3,000 species of spiders found in the United States are poisonous; however, their fangs are either too short or too fragile to break through human skin, or their venom is too weak to cause damage. The bites of most spiders cause only minor, local reactions, although a deadly reaction can occur. In the United States, the two spiders that can cause serious problems are the black widow and the brown recluse spiders (sometimes called the violin sp...
Snake Bites and Children
Snake Bites and Children Facts about snake bites Each year, approximately 8,000 people receive bites from venomous snakes in the United States, mostly between April and October. Even a bite from a nonvenomous snake can cause infection or allergic reaction in some people. The most important thing to remember for snake bites is to treat all snake bites as if they were venomous and get to a hospital emergency room as quickly as possible, especially if you are unsure of the exact type of snake responsible f...
Small Cuts and Scrapes
Small Cuts and Scrapes Small cuts and scrapes are often viewed as part of childhood and growing up. Most cuts and scrapes are minor injuries that can be treated at home. The skin opening may bleed or drain a small amount of fluid. First aid for cuts and scrapes Calm your child and let him or her know you can help. Apply pressure with a clean cloth or bandage for several minutes to stop bleeding. Wash your hands thoroughly. Wash the cut area well with soap and water, but do not scrub the wound. Remove an...
Sports Injuries and Children
Sports Injuries and Children Obviously, some sports are more dangerous than others. For example, contact sports such as football can be expected to result in a higher number of injuries than a noncontact sport such as swimming. However, all types of sports have a potential for injury, whether from the trauma of contact with other players or from overuse or misuse of a body part. Listed below are some sports injuries that are common in the growing child, for which we have provided a brief overview. Preve...
Sports Injury Prevention
Sports Injury Prevention Can sports injuries be prevented? Many sports injuries can be prevented by learning about the sport and making sure your child has the necessary protection. Before signing your child up for a sport, you should consider: The temperature. Cooler weather is safer. The playing surface. Some surfaces will reduce the impact on your child’s joints, reducing injuries. Traffic. Sharing the road with automobiles can raise the risk of injury. Gear safety. Broken or unsafe helmets, pads, or...
Skin Color Changes
Skin Color Changes What might skin color changes indicate in a newborn? The color of a baby's skin can often help identify possible problems in another area of the body. If your newborn has any of the following skin color changes, tell your doctor right away: Increasing yellow color Over half of all newborns develop some amount of jaundice during the first week. This causes a yellow coloring in their skin and eyes. This is usually a temporary condition, but may be a more serious sign of another illness....
Spinal Tap or Lumbar Puncture
Spinal Tap or Lumbar Puncture What is a spinal tap (lumbar puncture)? A spinal tap, also called lumbar puncture, is done to measure the amount of pressure in the spinal canal or to remove a small amount of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) for testing. Cerebral spinal fluid is the fluid that bathes your child's brain and spinal cord. In some cases, a spinal tap may also be done so medication can be injected into the spinal fluid, or to remove excess CSF in babies with hydrocephalus (a condition in which there...
Spinal Muscular Atrophy
Spinal Muscular Atrophy What is spinal muscular atrophy (SMA)? Spinal muscular atrophy is a genetic disease that affects the motor neurons in the spinal cord, resulting in muscle wasting and weakness. What causes spinal muscular atrophy? SMA is an autosomal recessive disease. This means that both males and females are equally affected, and that two copies of the gene, one inherited from each parent, are necessary to have the condition. A gene called survival motor neuron (or SMN) is found to have an abn...
Seizures and Epilepsy in Children
Seizures and Epilepsy in Children What is epilepsy? Epilepsy is a neurological condition involving the brain that makes people more susceptible to having recurrent unprovoked seizures. It is one of the most common disorders of the nervous system and affects people of all ages, races and ethnic background. . Anything that interrupts the normal connections between nerve cells in the brain can cause a seizure; this includes a high fever, low blood sugar, alcohol or drug withdrawal, or a brain concussion. U...
Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome
Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome What is staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome? Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome is a response to a toxin produced by a staphylococcal infection and is characterized by peeling skin. The disease mostly affects infants, young children, and individuals with a depressed immune system or renal insufficiency. The disease can be life-threatening. What are the signs and symptoms of staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome? The following are the most common signs and symptoms ...
Scarlet Fever What is scarlet fever? Scarlet fever, also known as scarlatina, is an infectious disease that causes a rash. It is associated with the same kind of bacteria that causes strep throat. It may also be associated with wounds or burns that become infected. The rash of scarlet fever is typically a fine, "sandpaper-like" rash that consists of small, red bumps. Scarlet fever most commonly occurs in children between 5 and 12 years old. What causes scarlet fever? Scarlet fever is caused by bacteria ...
Stillbirth What is stillbirth? Stillbirth is a common term for death of a fetus after 20 weeks. It is also called intrauterine fetal death or demise. Causes of stillbirth may include: Mother with diabetes or high blood pressure Infection in the mother or in the fetal tissues Congenital abnormalities Rh disease. A blood incompatibility problem between the mother and fetus. Cord problems including knots, tightened cord, cord wrapped around fetal body or neck, cord prolapse (the cord dropping down through ...
Sickle Cell Disease and Pregnancy
Sickle Cell Disease and Pregnancy What is sickle cell disease? Sickle cell disease is an inherited blood disorder characterized by defective hemoglobin (a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to the tissues of the body). Sickle cell disease involves a defect in hemoglobin, which affects the ability of the red blood cells to carry oxygen. Normal red blood cells are smooth, round, and flexible, like the letter "O," so they can move through the vessels in our bodies easily. The red blood cells in...
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE, or Lupus) and Pregnancy
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE, or Lupus) and Pregnancy What is lupus? Systemic lupus erythematosus, also known as SLE, or simply lupus, is a disease that is characterized by periodic episodes of inflammation of and damage to the joints, tendons, other connective tissues, and organs, including the heart, lungs, blood vessels, brain, kidneys, and skin. The heart, lungs, kidneys, and brain are the organs most affected. Lupus affects each individual differently and the effects of the illness range from ...
Spina Bifida What is spina bifida? Spina bifida is a condition in which there is abnormal development of the back bones, spinal cord, surrounding nerves, and the fluid-filled sac that surrounds the spinal cord. This neurological condition can cause a portion of the spinal cord and the surrounding structures to develop outside, instead of inside, the body. The defect can occur anywhere along the spine. What are the types of spina bifida? The types of spina bifida include the following: Click Image to Enl...
Special Care Providing special care for sick and premature babies Advances in the care of sick and premature babies include new technology and medicine, as well as treatments that focus on the special emotional and developmental needs of these babies. Babies in the NICU face many tests, procedures, noises, and lights. This is very different from the warm, dark, comfort of the mother's womb. Some babies are too sick to be held or have difficulty comforting themselves when not being held. Premature babies...
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) What is sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)? SIDS is the sudden and unexplained death of an infant under 1 year of age. SIDS is sometimes called crib death because the death occurs when a baby is sleeping in a crib. It is one of the leading causes of death in babies from 1 month to 1 year of age, occurring most often between 2 and 4 months of age. The death is sudden and unpredictable; in most cases, the baby seems healthy. Death occurs quickly, usually during a sleep...
Small for Gestational Age
Small for Gestational Age What is small for gestational age (SGA)? Small for gestational age is a term used to describe a baby who is smaller than the usual amount for the number of weeks of pregnancy. SGA babies usually have birthweights below the 10th percentile for babies of the same gestational age. This means that they are smaller than many other babies of the same gestational age. SGA babies may appear physically and neurologically mature but are smaller than other babies of the same gestational a...
Sickle Cell Disease in Children
Sickle Cell Disease in Children What is sickle cell disease? Sickle cell disease is an inherited blood disorder characterized by defective hemoglobin (a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to the tissues of the body). Sickle cell disease involves the red blood cells, or hemoglobin, and their ability to carry oxygen. Normal hemoglobin cells are smooth, round, and flexible, like the letter "O," so they can move through the vessels in our bodies easily. Sickle cell hemoglobin cells are stiff and...
Stuttering What is stuttering? Stuttering, sometimes referred to as stammering or diffluent speech , is a speech disorder. This is different than normal repetition of words that children may do when learning to speak. Normal developmental stuttering may occur when the child is younger than 5 years old. This may include repeating words or phrases, poor pronunciation of words, leaving out words or sounds, and speaking some words that are hard to recognize. True stuttering may occur in a child who has some...
Sleep Sleep is an essential part of your growing child's health. The amount of sleep needed changes as the child grows older. Newborns sleep approximately 16 to 17 hours a day, while preschoolers need only about 12 hours a day. Normal sleep has two parts: rapid eye movement (REM) and nonrapid eye movement (NREM). REM is an active form of sleep that is not as deep as NREM sleep. Dreams often happen during REM sleep. NREM sleep is a deep sleep. There are less body movements during this phase and the child...
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Copyright 2015. All rights reserved.